Jump to navigation Jump to search. Dihybrid cross is a cross between two different lines/ genes that differ in two ... If the first filial generation (F1 generation) produces four identical
A carbon atom has 4 electrons in itsouter shell. Carbon is in group 4 of the periodic table. A hydrogen atom has 1 electron in its outer shell. covalent bond and make an ethane molecule (C2H6).
Bond type: Covalent bond
Anion and Cation formed
Explanation: dot and cross structure
Bonding type:covalent bond
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We observed optical saturation curves of the Na(3P) level in cool (T ∼ 1700K) premixed laminar H2O2Ar flames at 1 atm and in a wide range of ratios below as well as above stoichiometry. A pulsed dye laser (pulse duration of 1.2 μs) was tuned at the upper doublet component. For this relatively long pulse duration, laser-enhanced molecular formation contributes significantly to the atomic Na depletion. This results in a distortion of the saturation curve and in a downward shift of the saturation parameter. Our theoretical model takes into account the formation of NaOH, NaH, and NaO2. In all our flames laser-enhanced NaOH formation is dominant. From the downstream profile of the saturated fluorescence intensity in the fuel-rich flame, we determined the ratio of the rate constants of Na + H2O, H2 → NaOH, NaH + H for the Na(3P) and Na(3S): 310 ± 60 and (4.5 ± 0.9) × 104, respectively. Using known cross sections for the quenching of Na(3P) by H2O, we derived upper limits for the rate constants of Na + H2O → NaOH + H from the 3S and 3P states: 1.2 × 10−13 cm3 s−1 and 3.7 × 10−11 cm−3 s−1, respectively. Our results in the fuel-lean flames support the existence of NaO2-enhanced formation of NaOH at low laser intensity. However, we showed that at high laser intensity laser-enhanced NaOH formation becomes dominant.