The DNA of most bacteria is contained in a single circular molecule, called the bacterial chromosome. The chromosomeA structure within the cell nucleus made of a single coiled piece of DNA that contains the genetic blueprint of an organism., along with several proteins and RNA molecules, forms an irregularly shaped structure called the nucleoid. This sits in the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell.
In addition to the chromosome, bacteria often contain plasmids – small circular DNA molecules. Bacteria can pick up new plasmids from other bacterial cells (during conjugation) or from the environment. They can also readily lose them – for instance, when a bacterium divides in two, one of the daughter cells might miss out on getting a plasmid.
Every plasmid has its own ‘origin of replication’ – a stretch of DNA that ensures it gets replicated (copied) by the host bacterium. For this reason, plasmids can copy themselves independently of the bacterial chromosome, so there can be many copies of a plasmid – even hundreds – within one bacterial cell.Plasmids help bacteria to survive stress.
Plasmids make themselves indispensable
Plasmids in biotech – delivering DNA.
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As in our body DNA are there in living organist like bacteria is there
They responsible for evolution and for genetic recombination
Stomata are tiny pores or holes found to be present in the epidermis of leaves. The major function of these stomata is to regulate the process of transpiration and gaseous exchange. The stomatal pore remains surrounded by specialised cells called guard cells which in turn are surrounded by subsidiary cells.
The stomatal pore, guard cells and the surrounding subsidiary cells together constitute the stomatal apparatus.
Plants "breathe' too, but they do it through tiny openings in leaves called stomata. stomata open and close to allow the intake of carbon dioxide and the release oxygen.
1.It is also called kitchen of the cell.
2.It is present in only plant cell.
3.It has two main structure: outer membrane and Inner membrane
4.It contain bag like structure called grana.
5.Chrolopast is present in the grama which traps light for photosynthesus.
6.Gelly like structure is present in chroloplast called stama
7.In the stoma DNA and Ribosomes are present.
8.It is self duplikating organelle.Functions:
1.It helps in photosynthesis.
2. It also gives out oxygen by grama.
Placenta is a structure that establishes firm connection between the foetus and the mother. From the outer surface of the chorion a number of finger like projections known as chorionic villi grow into the tissue of the uterus. These villi penetrate the tissue of the uterine wall of the mother and form placenta.
The placenta performs the following functions:
Food materials pass from the mother’s blood into the foetal blood through the placenta.
The trophoblast ol the placenta digest protein before passing them into foetal blood.
Through the placenta oxygen passes from the maternal blood to the foetal blood, and carbon dioxide passes from foetal blood to maternal blood.
Nitrogenous wastes such as urea pass from foetal blood into maternal blood through placenta and are filtered out by the kidneys of the mother.
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✔Apart from DNA bacterial cells have another smaller DNA called Plasmid. It is a double stranded self replicating circular DNA.
Role: It provides some phenotypic characters to bacteria like resistance to antibiotics.
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