In the dicot stem, the vascular bundles are arranged in a ring, with pith concentrated at the core of the stem, rather than being scattered throughout the plant interior. In each vascular bundle, the xylem and phloem are separated by a substance called vascular cambium.
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compared to animals, plants do not have a well-developed excretory system to throw out nitrogenous waste materials. is because of the differences in their physiology. therefore, plants use different strategies for excretion.
the gaseous waste materials produced during respiration (carbon dioxide) and photosynthesis (oxygen) diffuse out through stomata in the leaves and through lenticels in other parts of the plant. excess water evaporates mostly from stomata and also from the outer surface of the stem, fruits, etc., throughout the day. process of getting rid of excess water is called transpiration.
the waste products, like oxygen, carbon dioxide and water, are the raw materials for other cellular reactions. the excess of carbon dioxide and water are used up in way. the only major gaseous excretory product of plants is oxygen!
many plants store organic waste products in their permanent tissues that have dead cells, e.g., in heartwood. plants also store waste their leaves or barks. these wastes are periodically removed as the leaves and barks fall off.
some of the waste products are stored in special cells or cellular vacuoles. various waste products such as tannins, essential oils, gums, resins, etc., are produced during catabolic processes. tea leaves, amla and betel nuts (supari) contain tannin. tannins are found also in the barks of trees.
the leaves of many plants, like eucalyptus, lemon, sacred basil (tulsi), etc., contain essential oils. the rind of oranges and lemons and the petals of flowers like rose and jasmine also contain oils. some plant wastes are stored as a , fluid. you may have seen fluid ooze out when you pluck a papaya or a fig or the leaves of yellow oleander (pila kaner). fluid is called latex.
gums are a group of sticky, water- soluble wastes found in the common gum tree (babul). resins are another group of wastes found commonly in the stems of conifers (e.g., pine, fir).
alkaloids are a group of toxic waste products. but some of these are useful to us. quinine and are medicines derived from alkaloids stored in cinchona bark and opium poppy flowers respectively. caffeine found in coffee seeds and nicotine in tobacco leaves is also alkaloids.
waste products in the leaves of yellow oleander
organic acids, might prove harmful to plants, often combine with excess cations and precipitate out as insoluble crystals that can be safely stored in plant cells. calcium oxalate crystals accumulate in some tubers like yam (zamikand).
aquatic plants lose most of their metabolic wastes by direct diffusion into the water surrounding them. terrestrial plants excrete some waste into the soil around them.