Hypertonic solution: A solution that contains more dissolved particles (such as salt and other electrolytes) than is found in normal cells and blood. For example, hypertonic solutions are used for soaking wounds.
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2 if a plant cell is kept in a hypertonic solution It will shrink due to osmosis as the solution is concentrated and allthe water will go out.
3 if an animal cell is kept in hypotonic solution it will swell and burst as it does not have cell wall
4 if animal cell is kept in a hypertonic solution it will shrink and die
Note:- the following happens because of the process of osmosis.I am sending a picture hope it helps.
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(a) in companion cells hypertonic solution of sugar is present
1)Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. Organic farming continues to be developed by various organic agriculture organizations today. It is defined by the use of fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manure, green manure, and bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion planting. Biological pest control, mixed cropping and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged. In general, organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substances. For instance, naturally occurring pesticides such as pyrethrin and rotenone are permitted, while synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are generally prohibited. Synthetic substances that are allowed include, for example, copper sulfate, elemental sulfur and Ivermectin. Genetically modified organisms, nanomaterials, human sewage sludge, plant growth regulators, hormones, and antibiotic use in livestock husbandry are prohibited. Reasons for advocation of organic farming include advantages in sustainability, openness, self-sufficiency, autonomy/independence, health, food security, and food safety.
2) variety of chemicals are available that have been designed to control plant diseases by inhibiting the growth of or by killing the disease-causing pathogens. Chemicals used to control bacteria (bactericides), fungi (fungicides), and nematodes (nematicides) may be applied to seeds, foliage, flowers, fruit, or soil. They prevent or reduce infections by utilizing various principles of disease control. Eradicants are designed to kill a pathogen that may be present in the soil, on the seeds, or on vegetative propagative organs, such as bulbs, corms, and tubers. Protectants place a chemical barrier between the plant and the pathogen. Therapeutic chemicals are applied to combat an infection in progress.
3) Crop breeding is the art and science of improving important agricultural plants for the benefit of humankind. Crop breeders work to make our food, fiber, forage, and industrial crops more productive and nutritious. Crops provide for an expanding global population with increasing dietary expectations. Environmental protection is also improved by the work of crop breeders.
Plant breeding has been practiced by farmers since the dawn of agriculture, as they selected plants for larger seeds, more tasty fruits, and other valuable traits. Today, both farmers and scientists work to breed plants.
Sweeter corn, apples with a longer shelf life, and popcorn that pops better were all developed by crop breeders. But it’s not just consumer preference that breeders work for. They breed for plant growing conditions found throughout the world! Traits that have been improved by crop breeding include:
Average corn yields in the U.S. have increased almost ten times over the past 80 years, as have rice, potatoes, and sorghum
Yield (increasing how much is safely grown on the same amount of land; an example here and here)
Resistance to pests and diseases (read here)
Adaptation to environmental stresses such as heat, drought, frost, and salty soild.
Ease of harvest .
Efficiency of breeding techniques .
Taste, color, and texture .
Creation of seedless varieties of fruits and vegetables .
1.(a) Hypertonic solution
2.(c) xylem tissue
3.(a)suspended particles from higher concentrations to the lower concentrations.
5.(a)Turgor pressure equalises wall pressure..
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2.ascent of sap
air will be present in between cell wall and plasmalemma due to it's condition
(it is kept in a hypertonic solution
(b) in phloem, hypertonic solution of sucrose