The Solvay process is extensively used for industrial preparation of sodium carbonate (soda ash). The process is named after Ernest Solvay who developed the process during the 1860s.
Carbon dioxide reacts with the dissolved ammonia to form ammonium carbonate followed by ammonium hydrogen carbonate.
2NH3 +H2O + CO2 ---> (NH4)2CO3
(Ammonia) (Ammonium Carbonate)
(NH4)2CO3 + H2O + CO2 --> NH4HCO3
(Ammonium Carbonate) (Ammonium hydrogen carbonate)
NH4HCO3 + NaCl --> NH4Cl + NaHCO3
Sodium hydrogen carbonate crystal separates. These are heated to give sodium carbonate.
2 NaHCO3 --> Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O
But this process cannot be used to prepare potassium due to the high solubility of potassium bicarbonate and hence difficult to be precipitated by adding ammonium bicarbonate to a saturated solution of potassium
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both fission and fusion release enormous amounts of energy. fusion joins atomic nuclei together. the element formed has more neutrons or more protons than that of the starting material. for example, hydrogen and hydrogen can fuse to form helium.