I) Conduction - It is the process of transfer of heat energy in solids, from one particle to another, without the actual movement of the particles.
It usually occurs in solids.
In this, only the molecules vibrates but not the actual substance.
For ex - When we keep a vessel on a hot stove, it becomes hot just due to conduction. As when heat is given the molecules of that substance transfer the heat by vibrating.
II) Convection - It is the mode of transfer of heat energy wherein the molecules actually move from one part of the substance to the other.
It occurs in liquids and gases.
In solids the molecules are very tightly packed so, they can only vibrate but in liquids and gases there are loosely packed molecules so, it can occur in liquids and gases.
For ex - When water is heated from below the beaker then on getting heated, water expands and becomes less dense and this dense hot water rises up. This show the convention current in water.
IIi) When the heat energy is transferred from a hot body to cold body directly without heating the space between, and do not require any medium for it, is called Radiation.
It occurs in gases.
As, gases have very loosely packed molecules so heat transfer is easy.
For ex - When the sun reaches the Earth. We get the heat of the sun through Radiation as there is heat energy transferred with no medium involved.
2) The three modes of transmission of disease is :-
a) Through infected syringes.
b) Through the sexual contact.
a) Through the mothers blood to the baby.
2 i- This can be transfered from Mother to child
ii- This can be spread from Blood Transfusion
iii- This can also be spread through Needle Sharing
3. Schools and NGO's should aware that this disease in Non-Communicable, as it is not spread through on touching.Those childrens should be treated very nicely
The Human Immune System and Infectious Disease
Plasma cells produce antibodies that can neutralize pathogens.
The College of Physicians of Philadelphia
Antibody Production Antigen-Presenting Cell Killer T Cell Activity
All living things are subject to attack from disease-causing agents. Even bacteria, so small that more than a million could fit on the head of a pin, have systems to defend against infection by viruses. This kind of protection gets more sophisticated as organisms become more complex.
Multicellular animals have dedicated cells or tissues to deal with the threat of infection. Some of these responses happen immediately so that an infecting agent can be quickly contained. Other responses are slower but are more tailored to the infecting agent. Collectively, these protections are known as the immune system. The human immune system is essential for our survival in a world full of potentially dangerous microbes, and serious impairment of even one arm of this system can predispose to severe, even life-threatening, infections.
Non-Specific (Innate) Immunity
The human immune system has two levels of immunity: specific and non-specific immunity. Through non-specific immunity, also called innate immunity, the human body protects itself against foreign material that is perceived to be harmful. Microbes as small as viruses and bacteria can be attacked, as can larger organisms such as worms. Collectively, these organisms are called pathogens when they cause disease in the host.
All animals have innate immune defenses against common pathogens. These first lines of defense include outer barriers like the skin and mucous membranes. When pathogens breach the outer barriers, for example through a cut in the skin or when inhaled into the lungs, they can cause serious harm.
Some white blood cells (phagocytes) fight pathogens that make it past outer defenses. A phagocyte surrounds a pathogen, takes it in, and neutralizes it.
While healthy phagocytes are critical to good health, they are unable to address certain infectious threats. Specific immunity is a complement to the function of phagocytes and other elements of the innate immune system.
In contrast to innate immunity, specific immunity allows for a targeted response against a specific pathogen. Only vertebrates have specific immune responses.
Two types of white blood cells called lymphocytes are vital to the specific immune response. Lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow, and mature into one of several subtypes. The two most common are T cells and B cells.
An antigen is a foreign material that triggers a response from T and B cells. The human body has B and T cells specific to millions of different antigens. We usually think of antigens as part of microbes, but antigens can be present in other settings. For example, if a person received a blood transfusion that did not match his blood type, it could trigger reactions from T and B cells.
A useful way to think of T cells and B cells is as follows: B cells have one property that is essential. They can mature and differentiate into plasma cells that produce a protein called an antibody. This protein is specifically targeted to a particular antigen. However, B cells alone are not very good at making antibody and rely on T cells to provide a signal that they should begin the process of maturation. When a properly informed B cell recognizes the antigen it is coded to respond to, it divides and produces many plasma cells. The plasma cells then secrete large numbers of antibodies, which fight specific antigens circulating in the blood.
T cells are activated when a particular phagocyte known as an antigen-presenting cell (APC) displays the antigen to which the T cell is specific. This blended cell (mostly human but displaying an antigen to the T cell) is a trigger for the various elements of the specific immune response.
A subtype of T cell known as a T helper cell performs a number of roles. T helper cells release chemicals to
Help activate B cells to divide into plasma cells
Call in phagocytes to destroy microbes
Activate killer T cells
Once activated, killer T cells recognize infected body cells and destroy them.
Regulatory T cells (also called suppressor T cells) help to control the immune response. They recognize when a threat has been contained and then send out signals to stop the attack.
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3 sexual intercourse
transmission via needle of injection
transmission from mother to foetus
answer is C .
Mention any three modes of transmission
metention three modes ohf trancemisson
The mode (means) of transmission is the route or method of transfer by which the infectious microorganism moves or is carried from one place to another to reach the new host. The modes (means) of transmission are: Contact (direct and/or indirect), Droplet, Airborne, Vector and Common Vehicle.
The modes of transmission are contact ( direct/ indirect), droplet, airborne, vector, and common vehicle.