The ownership and management have a direct bearing on agricultural productivity and efficiency.
The term 'institutional factors' refers to the particular system under which land is owned and managed. The ownership and management have a direct bearing on agricultural productivity and efficiency. The government has given emphasis on institutional advancement through land reforms, besides technological advancement.
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net present value (npv) is a method used to determine the current value of all future cash flows generated by a project, including the initial capital investment. it is widely used in capital budgeting to establish projects are likely to turn the greatest profit.
the formula for npv varies depending on the number and consistency of future cash flows. if there’s one cash flow from a project that will be paid one year from now, the net present value is calculated as follows:
i = required return or discount rate
t = number of time periods