It is based on the principle of electromagnetic induction . when a coil is rotated about an axis perpendicular to the direction of uniform magnetic field, an indused emf produced across it.
The AC generator consists of the following parts :
A rectangular coil ABCD consisting of a large number of turns wound over a soft iron core is called armature. the soft iron core is used to increase the magnetic flux.
it is a strong magnet having concave poles. the armature is rotated between the two poles of this magnet so that axis of armature is perpendicular to magnetic field lines. in a small AC generator the magnet is the permanent magnet but in Big AC generators it is an electromagnet.
the leads from the arms of armature AC connected to two slip rings S, which rotate with the loop .
the rings slide against stationery contacts called brushes . these brushes are made up of carbon. these brushes are connected to the output terminals p and q.
the working of AC generator can be understood with the help of various positions of the armature .
suppose at time 't' =0 , the plane of the loop is perpendicular to B . as the loop rotate from position t=0 to position t=T/2 , induced EMF changes from zero to maximum value and then becomes zero again, hence induced EMF is zero. as the loop moves from position t =T /2 to position t=T , the EMF again changes from zero to maximum value and then again becomes zero .
Thus the output of the AC generator varries sinusoidally with time . The induced EMF does not depend upon the shape of the loop but depends only upon area of the loop..
AC Generator: Principle: It works on the principle of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. Whenever a coil is rotated in a uniform magnetic field about an axis perpendicular to the field, the magnetic flux linked with coil changes and an induced emf is set up across its ends.
Principle: It works on the principle of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. Whenever a coil is rotated in a uniform magnetic field about an axis perpendicular to the field, the magnetic flux linked with coil changes and an induced emf is set up across its ends.
almost it is correct someone answered for this question
An alternator is an electrical machine which converts mechanical energy into alternating electric energy. They are also known as synchronous generators.
How Does An AC Generator Work?
The working principle of an alternator or AC generator is similar to the basic working principle of a DC generator.
working of alternator or AC generator
Above figure helps you understanding how an alternator or AC generator works. According to the Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, whenever a conductor moves in a magnetic field EMF gets induced across the conductor. If the close path is provided to the conductor, induced emf causes current to flow in the circuit.
Now, see the above figure. Let the conductor coil ABCD is placed in a magnetic field. The direction of magnetic flux will be form N pole to S pole. The coil is connected to slip rings, and the load is connected through brushes resting on the slip rings.
Now, consider the case 1 from above figure. The coil is rotating clockwise, in this case the direction of induced current can be given by Fleming's right hand rule, and it will be along A-B-C-D.
As the coil is rotating clockwise, after half of the time period, the position of the coil will be as in second case of above figure. In this case, the direction of the induced current according to Fleming's right hand rule will be along D-C-B-A. It shows that, the direction of the current changes after half of the time period, that means we get an alternating current.
Construction Of AC Generator (Alternator)
alternator (AC generator) salient pole construction
Salient pole type alternator
Main parts of the alternator, obviously, consists of stator and rotor. But, the unlike other machines, in most of the alternators, field exciters are rotating and the armature coil is stationary.
Stator: Unlike in DC machine stator of an alternator is not meant to serve path for magnetic flux. Instead, the stator is used for holding armature winding. The stator core is made up of lamination of steel alloys or magnetic iron, to minimize the eddy current losses.
Why Armature Winding Is Stationary In An Alternator?
At high voltages, it easier to insulate stationary armature winding, which may be as high as 30 kV or more.
The high voltage output can be directly taken out from the stationary armature. Whereas, for a rotary armature, there will be large brush contact drop at higher voltages, also the sparking at the brush surface will occur.
Field exciter winding is placed in rotor, and the low dc voltage can be transferred safely.
The armature winding can be braced well, so as to prevent deformation caused by the high centrifugal force.
Rotor: There are two types of rotor used in an AC generator / alternator:
(i) Salient and (ii) Cylindrical type
Salient pole type: Salient pole type rotor is used in low and medium speed alternators. Construction of AC generator of salient pole type rotor is shown in the figure above. This type of rotor consists of large number of projected poles (called salient poles), bolted on a magnetic wheel. These poles are also laminated to minimize the eddy current losses. Alternators featuring this type of rotor are large in diameters and short in axial length.
Cylindrical type: Cylindrical type rotors are used in high speed alternators, especially in turbo alternators. This type of rotor consists of a smooth and solid steel cylinder havingg slots along its outer periphery. Field windings are placed in these slots.
The DC suppy is given to the rotor winding through the slip rings and and brushes arrangement.
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AC generators work on the principle of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction which states that electromotive force -EMF or voltage – is generated in a current-carrying conductor that cuts a uniform magnetic field.
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