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The bulkiest constitution of the world.
Rigidity and flexibility. ...
Parliamentary system of government. ...
Federal system with a unitary bias. ...
Fundamental rights and fundamental duties. ...
Directive principles of state policy. ...
2) Montesquieu .
FEATURES OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION
1) Constitution is a basis of the system of government .
2) Constitution determine the form and structure of its government .
3) Constitution determine the powers and functions of the various branches of government . I.e. the executive , the legislature and the judiciary .
4) Constitution determines the rights and privileges of the citizens . It expresses the aspirations of the people .
5) Constitution determines the relationship between the government and the citizens . It puts limitations of the people .
1) Fixed Capital supports the business indirectly .
2) Fixed Capital is invested in long-term assets .
3) Fixed Capital can't be liquidated into cash immediately .
1) Working Capital supports the business directly .
2) Working Capital is invested in current assets .
3) Working Capital can be liquidated into cash immediately .
FOLLOWING ARE THE MAIN CAUSES OF POVERTY IN INDIA :-
1) Income Inequalities .
2) Lack of Land Resources
3) High Growth rate of Population .
4) Lack of Job Opportunities in the secondary sector .
The Northern Plains are important because they are very fertile and thus the most suitable for growing crops which adds to Indian economy . this is why there are also called ' granary of India ' .
Earthquakes are usually caused when rock Underground suddenly breaks along a fault . This sudden release of energy causes the seismic waves that make the ground shake . When two blocks of rocks or two plates are rubbing against each other. they stick a little .
CAUSES OF AN EARTHQUAKES
Earthquakes are caused bt tectonic movements in the Earth's crust . The main cause is that when tectonic plates one rides over the other . Causing orogency collide ( mountain building ) , earthquakes ".
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✨Definition of Federalism ➡️➡️➡️
⭕Federalism is a system of government in which powers have been divided between the centre and its constituent parts such as provinces or states. The constituent units possess certain level of autonomy depending on type of federation.
⭕There are two types of federations:
♣️ Holding together federation: In this form of federation, the powers are shared among various social groups/constituent parts to accomodate the diversity present in the society. In this type of federation, the powers are somewhat tilted towards the central authority.
♣️Coming together federation: In this form of federation, the independent states come together to form a bigger unit and sacrifice some of their powers to be enjoyed by the central authority. The states here enjoy more autonomy as compared to the states in "holding together federation" system.
➡️The features of federal system include governments atleast at two levels, division of powers between different levels of the government, rigidity of constitution, independent judiciary, bicameralism, dual citizenship etc.
✨Indian Model of Federalism
➡️The Government of India Act, 1919 introduced the concept of division of powers between the centre and the provincial legislatures by separating the central and provincial subjects. The Constitution of does not mention India as a 'federation' but 'Union of states'
⬇️⬇️⬇️⬇️Below are the features of the federalism followed in India:⬇️⬇️⬇️⬇️
(1) Supremacy of the constitution:Constitution is the supreme law in India. The constitution is regarded as the guide in framing policies of the government. It lays out the ideas and philosphy of the constitution framers.
(2) Written constitution: India has the lengthiest written constitution in the whole world. The provisions of the constitution of India have been drawn from various sources. Indian constitution is a blend of rigidity and flexibity.
(3) Vertical power sharing: The Constitution has divided the powers between the Union and the States. It helps in accomodating diversity of the country. It enables the state governments to take decision with flexibility according to the local needs.
(4) Horizontal power sharing: India has three wings of the government- Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. Unlike USA, in India political executive is a part of the legislature.
(5) Bicameralism: The Parliament of India has two houses - Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. Most of the states in India do not have bicameral legislature.
(6) Independent judiciary: The Indian constitution provides for an independent and an integrated judicial system. The lower courts and the district courts are at the local level, high courts at the state level and the Supreme court is the highest court of the country.
✨Critical Appraisal of Indian Federalism
⭕Features such as horizontal and vertical power sharing, independent judiciary, written constitution, supremacy of constitution and bicameralism strengthen India's federalism. Though, India has adopted federal form of government, but it does not follow certain principles of federalism
⬇️⬇️⬇️These features have been mentioned here:
(1) Not a rigid constitution:
(2) Centre more powerful:
(3) Unequal representation of states in Upper House:
(4) Executive is a part of legislature:
(5) Lok Sabha more powerful than Rajya Sabha:
(6) Emergency Powers
(7) Integrated judiciary:
(8) Single citizenship:
(9) Appointment of governor:
(10) All India Services
(11) States not indestructible:
(12) Veto over states bill:
(13) Integrated Election Machinery:
(14) Integrated Audit Machinery
(15) Authority to remove key functionaries:
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