The most important tests for the success of Federalism were the creation of Linguistic States, Language Policy and Centre- State Relations.
Under the State Reorganization Commission in 1956, the states were created on the basis of language. Out of these 114 major languages, our Constitution recognizes 22 languages including Hindi as scheduled languages. Official Language Act provides that English would remain the official language of the country so long as non – Hindi speaking states desire.
The Constitution of India made provisions for division of powers between Centre and States. After 1990 when coalition government was formed at the Centre, Regional parties became more powerful in the states. Since no single party was able to secure majority, different parties formed alliance. Under this arrangement the culture of power sharing and respect for autonomy of state governments spread in India.
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2) A second test for Indian federation is the language policy. Our Constitution did not give the status of national language to any one language. Hindi was identified as the official language. But Hindi is the mother tongue of only about 40 per cent of Indians. Therefore, there were many safeguards to protect other languages.
3)Restructuring the Centre-State relations is one more way in which federalism has been strengthened in practice.
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C. A is correct but R is wrong.
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Business in Parliament may be transacted in English or in Hindi.However, the Hon’ble Chairman of the Rajya Sabha or the Hon’ble Speaker of the Lok Sabha may permit any Member to address the House in his / her mother tongue under special circumstances (Article 120 of the Constitution (External Website that opens in a new window)).
The purposes for which Hindi alone is to be used, the purposes for which both Hindi andEnglish are to be used and the purposes for which English language is to be used, have been specified in the Official Languages Act (External Website that opens in a new window), 1963, the Official Language Rules (External Website that opens in a new window), 1976 and the directions issued under them from time to time by the Department of Official Language, Ministry of Home Affairs.
It has been the policy of the Government of India that progressive use of Hindi inthe officialwork may be ensured through persuasion, incentive and goodwill.