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This is because of refraction.
When a ray of light passes from one transperent medium to other it bends.
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The rays of the light passing from a rare medium to dense medium change their course due to refraction, where the rays coming from stick in water come in air at surface they get displaced away from perpendicular as our eyes see straight way so the stick seems bent.
So, when the rays of light pass from a rarer medium to the denser medium they move towards the normal, the part of stick immersed in water appears to bend when immersed in water and this refraction causes an apparent shift in the position of the part of the road within the water
The partially immersed stick appears to be bent in water due to refraction of light at the air-water surface.
In simpler words, As you sight at the portion of the pencil that was submerged in the water, light travels from water to air (or from water to glass to air). This light ray changes medium and subsequently undergoes refraction. As a result, the image of the pencil appears to be bent.
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When stick is immersed partly in water then light coming from stick refracts at the surface of water due to change in density of medium. ... Because water and air hasdifferent refractive index. When stick is dipped in water the angle of refraction changed thats why it seemed to be bent.