1 ka answer Cytogenesis
1) The outer boundary of a cell is called the cell wall and it is semi permeable.
2) All the living substance in a cell except the nucleus is called cytoplasm.
4) Plasma membrane is made up of phospholipids and in plants cell wall is mainly composed of cellulose.
5) Nucleus was discovered by Robert Brown.
7) RNA stands for Ribonucleic acid.
8) Colorless plastids are called leucoplasts.
9) Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis.
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1. cell wall
21.The brain of the cell is the : Nucleus.
22.a.Fungi - Eukariotic cell.
23. d. Both a and b, Nucleoplasm & Nuclear sap.
24. a. Chromosomes.
25. b. Haploid.
26. a. Cisternae, Tubules, Vesicles.
27. a. Nucleoid.
28. b. Singer and Nicolson.
29. c. It synthesize ATP.
30. d. More than one option. ( except chromoplast)
31. c. Contractile vacuole.
32 . b. Catalase.
33. d. Golgi body.
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The Plasma Membrane
Like prokaryotes, eukaryotic cells have a plasma membrane (Figure 3.9) made up of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins that separates the internal contents of the cell from its surrounding environment. A phospholipid is a lipid molecule composed of two fatty acid chains, a glycerol backbone, and a phosphate group. The plasma membrane regulates the passage of some substances, such as organic molecules, ions, and water, preventing the passage of some to maintain internal conditions, while actively bringing in or removing others. Other compounds move passively across the membrane.Figure 3.9 The plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. There are other components, such as cholesterol and carbohydrates, which can be found in the membrane in addition to phospholipids and protein.
The plasma membranes of cells that specialize in absorption are folded into fingerlike projections called microvilli (singular = microvillus). This folding increases the surface area of the plasma membrane. Such cells are typically found lining the small intestine, the organ that absorbs nutrients from digested food. This is an excellent example of form matching the function of a structure.
People with celiac disease have an immune response to gluten, which is a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. The immune response damages microvilli, and thus, afflicted individuals cannot absorb nutrients. This leads to malnutrition, cramping, and diarrhea. Patients suffering from celiac disease must follow a gluten-free diet.
The cytoplasm comprises the contents of a cell between the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope (a structure to be discussed shortly). It is made up of organelles suspended in the gel-like cytosol, the cytoskeleton, and various chemicals. Even though the cytoplasm consists of 70 to 80 percent water, it has a semi-solid consistency, which comes from the proteins within it. However, proteins are not the only organic molecules found in the cytoplasm. Glucose and other simple sugars, polysaccharides, amino acids, nucleic acids, fatty acids, and derivatives of glycerol are found there too. Ions of sodium, potassium, calcium, and many other elements are also dissolved in the cytoplasm. Many metabolic reactions, including protein synthesis, take place in the cytoplasm.
If you were to remove all the organelles from a cell, would the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm be the only components left? No. Within the cytoplasm, there would still be ions and organic molecules, plus a network of protein fibers that helps to maintain the shape of the cell, secures certain organelles in specific positions, allows cytoplasm and vesicles to move within the cell, and enables unicellular organisms to move independently. Collectively, this network of protein fibers is known as the cytoskeleton. There are three types of fibers within the cytoskeleton: microfilaments, also known as actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules (Figure 3.10).Microfilaments are the thinnest of the cytoskeletal fibers and function in moving cellular components, for example, during cell division. They also maintain the structure of microvilli, the extensive folding of the plasma membrane found in cells dedicated to absorption. These components are also common in muscle cells and are responsible for muscle cell contraction. Intermediate filaments are of intermediate diameter and have structural functions, such as maintaining the shape of the cell and anchoring organelles. Keratin, the compound that strengthens hair and nails, forms one type of intermediate filament. Microtubules are the thickest of the cytoskeletal fibers. These are hollow tubes that can dissolve and reform quickly. Microtubules guide organelle movement and are the structures that pull chromosomes to their poles during cell division. They are also the structural components of flagella and cilia. In cilia and flagella, the microtubules are organized as a circle of nine double microtubules on the outside and two microtubules in the center.
The centrosome is a region near the nucleus of animal cells that functions as a microtubule-organizing center. It contains a pair of centrioles, two structures that lie perpendicular to each other. Each centriole is a cylinder of nine triplets of microtubules.
The centrosome replicates itself before a cell divides, and the centrioles play a role in pulling the duplicated chromosomes to opposite ends of the dividing cell. However, the exact function of the centrioles in cell division is not clear, since cells that have the centrioles removed can still divide, and plant cells, which lack centrioles, are capable of cell division.
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1. (b) Prokaryotic cells
2. (c) Cytoplasm
3. (b) Cytoplasm
4. (a) Ribosomes
5. (a) Cytoplasm
1. Carl Benda
2. about 1000–2000 mitochondria
3. Power House of the cell
4. Adenosine triphosphate
1. To produce the energy currency of the cell, ATP (i.e., phosphorylation of ADP), through respiration, and to regulate cellular metabolism.
2. Mitochondria are tiny organelles inside cells that are involved in releasing energy from food. This process is known as cellular respiration. It is for this reason that mitochondria are often referred to as the powerhouses of the cell.
3. Mitochondria are shaped perfectly to maximize their productivity. They are made of two membranes. The outer membrane covers the organelle and contains it like a skin. The inner membrane folds over many times and creates layered structures called cristae. The fluid contained in the mitochondria is called the matrix.
The folding of the inner membrane increases the surface area inside the organelle. Since many of the chemical reactions happen on the inner membrane, the increased surface area creates more space for reactions to occur. If you have more space to work, you can get more work done. Similar surface area strategies are used by micro villi in your intestines.
4. Nucleus, cytoplasm,cell membrane are living part. they are together called protoplasm. ... cytoplasm contains cell organelles and cell membrane allows entry and exit of materials.so protoplasm is called'living part of the cell'. it performs funtions cell wall found in plants is dead part.
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