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is according to the ncert democratic politics textbook
communalism can take various forms in politics :
(i) the most common expression of communalism is in everyday
beliefs. these routinely involve religious prejudices, stereotype of religious
communities and belief in the superiority of one's religion over other
religions. is so common that we often fail to notice it, even when we
believe in it.
(ii) a communal mind often leads to a quest for political
dominance of one's own religious community. for those belonging to majority
community, takes the form of majoritarian dominance. for those belonging
to the minority community, it can take the form of a desire to form a separate
(iii) political mobilisation on religious lines is another
frequent form of communalism. involves the use of sacred symbols,
religious leaders, emotional appeal and plain fear in order to bring the
followers of one religion together in the political arena.
(iv) sometimes communalism takes its most ugly form of
communal violence, riots and massacre.
hurruppeshwar is the capital of palas dynasty